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Monday, December 19, 2016
Types of Movement Disorders and Parkinson Disease
Last October while we were in Macrine's neurologist for her quarterly check up, I discussed with her neurologist not only the current trends on Parkinson Disease therapy but also on other types of movement disorders that he specializes. In his office, there is a plaque that listed his specialty, Parkinson Disease(PD) and other movement disorders. I asked him what are examples of other movement disorders besides PD. He give me the list below. What are movement disorders(MD)?
Movement disorders are neurological conditions that affect the speed, quality and ease of movement. Hypokinetic movement disorders are characterized by lack of movement. Hyperkinesias refer to conditions characterized by excessive movements. Dyskinesias are involuntary movements that can occur as a side effect of medications used to treat Parkinson’s disease.
Primary types of movement disorders are listed below: Balance Disorders, Corticobasal Degeneration, Dystonia, Essential Tremors, Huntington's Disease, Multiple System Atrophy, Parkinson's Disease, and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.
A short description of some of the most common movement disorder and Parkinson Disease are listed on www.news-medical.net as follows:
1. Tremor: The most common movement disorder is essential tremor. It affects one in 20 people under the age of 40 and one in five people over 65. The disorder is characterized by shaking of the hand or fingers when it attempts to perform a task. The tremors are usually involuntary, rhythmic or pendulous movements of a part of the body.
2. Parkinson’s disease: Parkinson’s disease affects one in 500 individuals and in most cases is caused by genetic predisposition or exposure to certain drugs and toxins. Parkinson’s disease is characterized by rigidity of muscles, tremors and shaking and a short “shuffling” gait. Eventually the patient may fail to perform his or her daily activities and may have to depend on their caregivers. Parkinson’s disease is a severely debilitating disease.
3. Dyskinesia: This is a symptom of an underlying movement disorder. Dyskinesia literally means abnormal (dys) movements (kinesia). This is characterized by spasms, tics and twitches or more complex slow writhing movements (athetosis), rapid, jerky movements (chorea) or spasm of a group of muscles (dystonia). Dyskinesia may be seen in Parkinson’s disease and other similar conditions. They may be seen on intake of certain drugs like Levodopa for Parkinson’s disease therapy or antipsychotic medications for psychiatric conditions.
4. Dystonia: Dystonia is characterized by sustained spasm or contraction of a group of muscles. This may lead to painful writhing movements or abnormally held postures. Writer's cramp is an example of focal dystonia that affects the fingers of the writing hand. It is often sudden in onset and disappears by itself on rest. Similar dystonia may affect the eyelids leading to blepharospasm. This leads to increased blinking and involuntary closing of the eyes.
5. Tics: These are small movements or twitches that are repeated in a group of muscles. The movements include blinking, shrugging, grunting or grimacing.
6. Dysphonia: There are abnormal movements of the muscles involved in voice production and speech. The voice as a result becomes quivery, jerky or strained and hoarse.
7. Ataxia: This affects regular movement of walking, running etc. There is a problem with posture maintenance and control of coordination and balance. Ataxia is usually a symptom of conditions such as multiple sclerosis or cerebral palsy rather than being a disease in itself. It is caused due to diseases of the cerebellum or base part of the back of the brain. Commonly alcohol consumption may lead to ataxia.
8. Restless legs syndrome: This is a common movement disorder affecting one in 10 individuals. There are intensely uncomfortable sensations in the legs and sometimes arms typically seen during bedtime or at rest. It may be felt as tingling or creeping that is relieved by movement of the limbs. This leads to disturbed sleep and insomnia.
9. Huntington’s disease: This is a genetic condition that affects movements. There is chronic progressive chorea or rapid jerky purposeless movements of various groups of muscles. There is additional emotional, behavioral, and psychiatric abnormalities.