Welcome and Mabuhay

If you love Marinduque and want to contribute articles to this site, please do so. My contact information is in my profile. The above photo was taken from the balcony of The Chateau Du Mer Beach House, Boac, Marindque, Philippines. I love sunsets. How about you? Please do not forget to read the latest national and international news in the right side bar of this blog. Some of the photos and videos on this site, I do not own. However, I have no intention on infringing your copyrights. Thank you and Cheers!

Tres Reyes Island view of the Marinduque Mainland

Monday, May 2, 2016

Replacing My Grass Lawn with Drought Resistant Plants

My front lawn after the removable of a 30-year old dying maple tree

I am doing some research on drought resistant plants to replace the grass in my front yard. I have called for estimates from two landscaping design companies in our area. As of today, I have not seen the design that will highlight drought resistant plants.

I saw four photos of drought resistant plants in the web and from the website of American Landscape Design of Sacramento as follows:









What is your favorite design and plants? Any ideas and suggestions will be appreciated. I am leaning towards photo #2.

Sunday, May 1, 2016

The Month of May in the Philippines

Macrine and I dancing the Rigodon de Honor during the May Flower Ball and Dance culminating the whole Month of May Celebration of Flores de Mayo in the Philippines.

Today is May 1. It reminded me of an article I wrote 3 years ago on the month of May in the Philippines. I am reposting it case you have not read it!

Today is the start of the May Flowers Festival or the Flores de Mayo Festival in the Philippines. This Festival lasting for the whole month is in honor of Mary, the Virgin Mother. This is celebrated in all the towns in the Roman Catholic parish churches in the Philippines. However, the celebration of this Festival that I will always remember are the celebrations in my hometown in Iloilo when I was growing up and the one in Marinduque a few years ago when my mother-in-law was the Hermana. The Hermana was the over-all chairperson for the whole month of festivities which included a daily offering of flowers to the Virgin Mary along with the recitation of the Rosary. The month is culminated with a Parade and Dance participated by the whole town. During the Gala Dance, the Rigodon de Honor is danced by the prominent officials and matrons of the town.

The Santacruzan refers to the pageant on the last day of Flores de Mayo, held in honor of Reyna Elena and Constantine finding the True Cross in Jerusalem.

The following video reminds me of my childhood years in Barotac Viejo, Iloilo when My late mother was also very active with our local parish church.


The Sagala A Sagala is a religio-historical beauty pageant held in many cities, towns, and even in small communities throughout the Philippines during the month of May. One of the most colorful aspects of this festival, the pageant depicts the finding of the Holy Cross by Queen Helena, mother of Constantine the Great. Many movie and television personalities participate in the events and are featured in major sagala. This festival was introduced by the Spaniards and has since become part of Filipino traditions identified with youth, love, and romance. Prior to the Santacruzan, a novena is held in honor of the Holy Cross.

The procession itself commemorates the search of the Holy Cross by Reyna Elena and her son, the newly-converted emperor Constantine. After the Holy Cross was found in Jerusalem and brought back to Constantinople, there was a joyful celebration for thanksgiving.
Reyna Elena
Reyna Eléna (Queen Helena) - the last member of the procession, she represents Helena of Constantinople who found the True Cross; this is alluded to by her attribute, a small cross or crucifix that she carries in her arms. This considerably prestigious role is usually awarded to the most beautiful girl participating in the pageant. In some communities, the identity of the woman who will portray the Reyna Eléna is kept a secret until the day of the procession. Constantíno - the escort of Reyna Eléna; traditionally a young boy representing the Emperor Constantine.

The procession is accompanied by the steady beat of the rondalla, playing and singing the Hail Mary ("Dios Te Salve"). The devotees walking with the procession hold lighted candles in their hands and sing the prayer as they go along.

After the procession, there is a pabítin that serves as a culminating activity for all the children to enjoy. A Pabítin is a square trellis to which goodies (candies, fruits, small trinkets, etc.) are tied with strings. This trellis in turn is tied to a rope and is suspended on a strong branch or pole. Children then gather under the trellis as the it is slowly lowered. They then jump as high as they can to try to pick the goodies while someone jerks it up and down repeatedly until all the goodies are gone. It is customary for males attending the Santa Cruzan wear the traditional Barong Tagalog and that the females wear any Filipiniana-inspired dress. Pabitin is similar to the Mexican celebration of the Pinata.

This year celebration of the Flores de Mayo in the Philippines will probably be not as festive and peaceful because of the election on May 13. I just hope there will be no killings, murder and goons activities related to the election. But realizing the history of the elections in the Philippines dominated by family dynasties, vote buying, corrupt and greedy politicians, it will be a miracle if no killings will occur this month. I am praying and hoping for a peaceful election this year particularly in my second home-the beautiful and scenic island of Marinduque.

Saturday, April 30, 2016

Selling Our Time Share at the Ridge in Lake Tahoe

This year I decided not to pay the maintenance fee of our time share at the Ridge, Lake Tahoe due last January. The resort will sell it this July and my return will be only $675. The maintenance fee is $1079. For the last months I have been receiving E-mail from the resort collection department urging me to pay. The bill is currently $1127 because of penalty. I wrote the Collector I have no intention in paying it. She told me the resort will not sell my timeshare if my dues are not current. If this is true, I will just let it default. I will sell the time share to any one interested and willing to pay the maintenance fee. Attached is an article I wrote about two years ago.



Macrine and I finally decided to sell our timeshare at the Ridge in Tahoe, Nevada. For the last three years, we have not been able to use it, so we just rent it. Renting gives me a little income but not enough to pay for the annual fees of over a $1000. This maintenance fees goes higher every year. My children are not interested in it.

My first action was to read all about reselling your timeshare. There are several scams and companies who are in this business. The following video summarizes the pitfalls of sellers of timeshare whose value has gone down to almost zero and if you are lucky you may be able to sell it for at least 1% of the original price of your purchase. Never pay an upfront fee is what I learned from my readings in the Internet



The second thing I did was to talk to the Ridge and inquire what I have to do to sell my time share. I was told I have to list it with them and wait from 12 to 15 months for a buyer. The money I will received will be only $675 net. I was expecting more value, but I have no choice. We purchased the time share 20 years ago for $15,000 which has been fully paid ten years ago. The maintenance fee started at $100 annually.

The Ridge Representative, informed me I could try selling it myself, but I must be aware of SCAMS. She told me never pay an upfront fee to anyone who promised to sell your timeshare for more than it is worth.

Our time share is a 2-bedroom with lock out. It can accommodate from 6 to 8. It is in the Plaza 2 unit of the Ridge at Tahoe, in the State of Nevada. The website of the Ridge is www.ridgetahoeresort.com (see photo above).

If you are interested, I will entertain any offers greater than $675.

Thursday, April 28, 2016

Maple Tree Removal and a Mosquito Control Inspection

My 30-year old maple tree in the front yard.

Two events happened in our household this week.

1. The first event was a surprise visit from the Mosquito Control Office. Yesterday morning at about 11AM, I heard a loud knock in our front door. Without opening the door, I asked what does he wants and identify himself. ( Never open your front door without investigating, because it could be an intruder).

Knocker: Open your door!! ( Voice with Authority). We have a complaint about your swimming pool.
Me: Who are you?
Knocker: I am from the County Health Office. I am an Inspector.
Me: Show me your credential. Through the peephole I saw he was not lying.
Me: Ok, if you want to inspect the pool, go by the side of the house. I will open the door to the pool.

The past three weeks, we did have problems with the pool. The filter and vacuum was not working so the water was cloudy and greenish. Luckily my son has started cleaning the pool a couple of days ago. We have ordered a new filter and vacuum for the pool(on line). The pool was still not clear blue, and last week it was inhabited by algae, so the water was turbid and greenish. My son had already shocked the pool with algaecide and chlorine, but the water was still not crystal blue, but there were no mosquitoes.

I asked the inspector if a neighbor did the complaint. He said he is not allowed to tell me who complained but said he is checking for mosquitoes because of the Nile Virus. He took a sample of the pool water and murmured that it probably need more chlorine. He walked out satisfied that our pool was not a breeding place for mosquitoes, although we have a few mosquitoes in our back yard.

I was thinking that if the neighbor did not complained how did the county know of our swimming pool problem? Did the helicopter viewed through Goggle map and observed our pool water was not crystal blue? Was our ordering of filters and vacuum cleaner on line triggered the visit? I will never know the answer to the two questions above. One thing for sure: Big Brother-the Government is always watching you.

2. The second event this week is the removal of our 30 year-old maple tree in our front yard.
Last month we heard a big crashing sound in front of the house while we were eating lunch. My son immediately went to investigate. Come here, Dad! He shouted.

One of the three main branches of the tree(see photo) broke and hit our front lamp and damaged it. The next day my son bought a chain saw, cut the fallen branch into 24 inches firewood sizes and changed our lamp. I immediately call two tree companies for estimates to remove the maple tree.

The first estimate from Stumpman ( I have hired the company before for tree trimming on my side yard) : Removal of TREE- $525, Grinding the stump-$110, Hauling of Wood-$75 and Disposal fee-$ 26 with a total of $736. He gave me a $36 senior discount quoting $700 as the total cost.

The second estimate was from Andersen Tree Company. Doing the same job above, removing, grinding and hauling, I got a quote for $750. While we were discussing the quotations, Scott Andersen, the estimator and owner( blond white guy in his 50's-must be Swedish) asked me where was I born. I said in the Philippines. His face lightened up and informed me he is married to a Filipina. He immediately showed me a picture of his wife. She is very pretty and her name is Portia Cortes originally from Mindanao. Scott said he liked Filipinos so he will give me a $100 discount. My net cost will be only $650.

I told him to allow me to consult my wife on the price. I went inside the house and told my wife of the price and if she has no objections if I invite Scott for some Pancit Canton, I just finished cooking. Scott came in and eat the Pancit with gusto. While we were eating, he informed us that he had been to the Philippines twice and has been in the tree business for over 20 years. He has been married to his Filipina wife for 4 years and they had no children.

Scott wrote the work order. I asked him when he can do the work. He said in two weeks. I pleaded that I will be very happy if he can do the job next week, since I am planning on hiring my landscaper to remove the grass and replaced it with a drought resistant ground cover next week (after the tree is removed). Scott promised he will try his best to accommodate my request.

Note: This is the first time, I have invited a complete stranger for dinner. In this case, Scott was very friendly and that he is married to a Filipina -so I did not hesitate in inviting him for dinner-Pancit Canton with Prawns and Chicken

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

Pork Feet, Hocks, Shanks and Vegetables in Peanut Sauce


The other day, I purchased 2 lbs of pork feet, hocks and shank as it was on sale at our local food market. With it I purchased 3 bunch of baby boctoy( pechay),1.4 lbs green beans and 2 large size Chinese eggplant. For the peanut sauce* I purchased Peanut Powder by Jif. This is the first time I have used this product. It says it has 85% less fat than the traditional peanut butter. The above are the major ingredients for this recipe. The other ingredients are:

1 medium onion, diced
5 cloves garlic, minced
1 tablespoon tumeric powder for coloring
1/4 cup cooking oil
2 cups water
Garlic salt and or ground black pepper to taste
Shrimp Paste ( bagoong)-optional

Cooking Instruction:

1. Pour 8 cups of water in a cooking pot along with the pork feet, hocks and shank. Add a dash garlic salt and black ground pepper. Boil at high heat for 1 hour or until the meat is tender. Remove the pork from the cooking pot and set aside.

2. In another cooking pot, saute the onions and garlic. Add the pork. In a cup of water add 5 tablespoon of peanut Powder( by Jif) and mix. Add the mixture to the pot, and green beans. Cook for another 2 minutes.

3. Add the eggplant, and the tumeric spice and let it simmer another 2 minutes. Lastly add the pechay and cook at low heat for another 2 minutes.

4. Serve with steam rice and with shrimp Paste on the side. My favorite brand of Bagooong is Barrio Fiesta.

* Normally, I use roasted and ground peanuts for the sauce. My discovery of the peanut powder by Jif saves time in praparing this dish. The tumeric is my own coloring ingredient, which is optional.

Sunday, April 24, 2016

Sinigang na Sugpo( Prawns and Vegetable Dish)



Last week Macrine and I bought 1 lb of prawns for $6.99/lb at Seafood City in Elk Grove. Today is the only time I had a chance to cook it using the easy and simple recipe I have in my file. The recipe is as follows:

Ingredients:

1 medium onion, peeled and quartered
2 medium tomatoes, quartered
2 Chinese eggplant, end trimmed and cut into 1-inch chunks
3 bunch of pechay or Chinese boktoy, stems cut and leaves separated
1/4 pound of green beans, end trimmed and cut into 2-inches in length
1 pound shell-on shrimp, tendrils trimmed, washed and drained well
1/4 pouch of Mama Sita Tamarind Seasoning Mix for Sinigang ( about 0.45 oz or 12.5 g)
Garlic Salt to taste. Patis or fish sauce may be used instead of the garlic salt.

Instruction

1. In a pot over medium heat, bring water( 4 cups) to a boil. Add onions and tomatoes and cooked until softened. Add the eggplant and green beans. Continue cooking until the vegetables are half-cooked.

2. Add shrimps and tamarind seasoning. Season with garlic salt. Continue cooking until the shrimps changes to pink( do not overcook the shrimps) and vegetables are tender but crisp. Add the pechay pushing down into the broth with back of the spoon. Turn off heat and allow the residual steam to cook the pechay leaves. Served hot with fish sauce on the side if desired.

( Note I am an Illongo so I hate Patis, but my wife loves Patis very, very much. Bon Apetite!

Saturday, April 23, 2016

The 5th Living David Katague on Planet Earth

Zion David Katague
The 5th living David Katague( Zion David Katague) was born yesterday in the Philippines. He is the son of my nephew Kirk David Katague from Bacolod City. Kirk David is the son of my brother Dolce Ruben Katague. He is also handsome with a divided chin and weighs 7lbs. I am reposting my blogs on the other four living David Katagues in case you have not read it as follows:
David Efren, David Balleza and David E III Katagues
Kirk David Katague

Just recently I had a surprise visit from my nephew from Australia. His name is Dave Katague, only son of my brother Efren Katague( Australia). His visit triggers memories of my father, David Jamili Katague, great, great grandson of Don Manuel Javellana and Dona Gertrudes Lopez. http://javellana.wordpress.com

When Dave Katague( nephew from Australia) posted our picture of the 3 David Katagues in the world, one of my other nephew named Kirk David Katague( son of my other brother, Ruben ( Bacolod City, Philippines) mentioned that he should be the number 4, since he was also named after his Lolo. Thus I am writing a short vignettes of the four still living David Katagues of the world. My spouse of 59 years told me that all the David Katagues are good looking men. Do you agree? If so let me know or just clicked the LIKE button.

1. David B. Katague (ME): Read the following site for my professional career: http://planningtovisitthephilippines.blogspot.com/2008/08/professional-career-of-david-b-katague.html

2. David Efren Katague( nephew from Australia) https://vimeo.com/davekatague and has a Face Book Page

3. My son the 3rd David Katague is a Transportation Security Officer, TSA in Sacramento, since 2005. His former employment were at PricewaterhouseCoopers as a Senior Information Technology Consultant from Sep 1997 - Feb 2002. Before that he was a Policy Analyst at the Executive Office of the President from Aug 1992 to Sept 1995.

He has two degrees as follows: From Carnegie Mellon University with a Masters Degree in Public Policy & Public Management(1986 - 1988) and from University of California, Davis with a Bachelor Science degree in Agricultural & Managerial Economics(1982 - 1986). He does not have a Face Book page.

4. Kirk David Katague,( nephew from the Philippines) https://www.facebook.com/shevid.cerbokatague?fref=ts

Kirk David is 28 yrs old and will be turning 29 this November. He is five feet and eleven inches. He is not yet married but will be having a baby boy next month. He is naming him David Zion Katague.

He plans on settling down next year. He studied cookery in Cebu, because he wants to apply in a cruise ship. He said he is very proud to bear the name after his Lolo David.



Here is my response after receiving the above information: Wow, what a coincidence about what you are saying regarding naming your son David Zion. This will insure that the David Katague's name continues. I am 81 years old and pretty soon I will be gone. This indeed good news and you made me very happy. I like to meet you again someday. The last time, I remember meeting you was when you were just a kid in Jaro in Amor's home with your Dad and other members of your family. Say Hello to your DAD and Mom. I will be posting an article about The Four Living David Katagues of the World soon! ( Number 5 coming soon-Congratulations in advance, David Kirk)

For the David Katague genealogy and ancestry see the following article:
http://davidbkatague.blogspot.com/2015/11/my-great-great-grand-parents-from-my.html

Friday, April 22, 2016

Reminiscing My Failures and Successes

This week with Hillary Clinton winning the New York Primary signals that her quest for the White House is appearing to be imminent. Thinking of Hillary's presidency, makes me wish that before I conked out in this Planet Earth, I will have another chance to be invited to an event in the White House or perhaps received another official Christmas card from the White House as we did in 1995. Hillary's candidacy reminded me of an article I wrote about my failures and successes that I am reposting as follows:
The White House Tour and Annual Christmas Card Greetings from the Clinton's during Bill Clinton Administration were two events in our life here in US that my wife and I will always cherish and remember.

Have you ever looked back in your past and remembered your failures? Have you realized that without those failures you could not have succeeded? The common saying that you have to fail in order to succeed applies to the following past events in my life.

The first event in my life to support the above statement occurred during my elementary school days. When I did not receive the first honor award (I got 2nd honor award) during my elementary school graduation both my parents and I were very disappointed. My parents even contemplated filing an official complaint to the school superintendent against my teacher and principal for nepotism since the valedictorian was a close relative of the teacher and principal.

However, I convinced my parents not to do it. I told them I would work harder in high school to be number one, to show the teacher and principal they made a mistake in the selection process. The whole four years of high school, I competed with the top five honor students from my elementary school. Needless to say, I graduated valedictorian of our high school class. My classmate who was the valedictorian in my elementary school got the salutatorian award (second place). I was happy and felt vindicated. My teacher in elementary school congratulated me but without looking straight into my eye, when my parents invited her to my high school graduation party at our house.

The second event in my life illustrating the statement "you have to fail in order to succeed" was during my graduation with my Bachelors degree in Chemistry from the University of the Philippines in Diliman, Quezon City in 1955. When I missed graduating cum laude (with Honor) by just 0.24 points, I told myself I would pursue my Ph.D. in the United States to show my professor in Differential Calculus who gave me a "4.0" (condition) grade when I received only 69% in the final exam(I missed 1 point to get a C). I took a retest and passed it with flying colors.

In my chemistry class, there were only 15 of us and only one graduated cum laude. That showed how hard it was to graduate with honor in chemistry at that time. That grade of "4" certainly did deflate my ego and self-esteem. Two years later, my self-esteem was redeemed when I passed the National Board Examination for Chemists, taking 3rd place nation-wide.

My four years average including the "4.0" that I got from Differential Calculus was included in the calculation (not my passing grade of 3.0 after a retest the next day) turned out to be 1.99 (not high enough for honor). But if you calculate my four year average with the 3.0 that I got after the retest, my four year average turned out to be 1.74, enough to receive the cum laude (with honor) award.

When I found this out, I was so furious, I wished my calculus professor be run over by a car or misfortunes fall on her every day of her life. When I saw her in the hallway, I gave her a stare of hate (like an arrow that pierced her heart that did not stop bleeding until she died).

But I vowed to the whole world, I will obtain a Doctorate Degree in the United States to show to my Professor in Differential Calculus what she did to my ego. Looking back, I think I should thank her for what she did, because there were numerous times during my first year in Graduate School, that I wanted to quit. But once I remember the incident, it reminded me of the vow I made to myself not to quit at any cost.

The third event in my life illustrating you have to fail in order to succeed was the culmination of my 22 years of experience working for private industries here in US. I lost my first job in industry of my own free will. I wanted to receive a 20% raise in income as well as move to a warmer climate (West Coast of the US).

The second private industry job that I lost was due to the company moving and closing their agricultural research division and also consolidating their research facility in one location to save money. I lost my third job in private industry because the firm wanted to save money and also wanted to get out of the pesticide business.

My fourth job loss was the most heart-breaking episode in my career. I had only one day of notice. After working for the firm for 12 years with good performance, it took management only one day to tell me that they not need me any more, good bye, and to look for another job.

That feeling of anger, loss of ego, shock and envy (for those who were not fired) was indescribable and humiliating. I vowed I would never worked for a private firm again in my life. My determination to work for the Federal Government was achieved when I worked for the Food and Drug Administration(FDA) in the Fall of 1990. David III and Me at the Portico of the White House Waiting for the Private Tour of the White House, 1995 Inside and Outside envelop of Christmas card from the Clinton's, 1995.

Working for FDA was the best move I have ever made in my career. My 12 years in the FDA was filled with awards, accomplishments and personal growth. Our life in the suburb of Washington, DC was filled with civic involvements, social and cultural activities, humanitarian projects and pleasant memories. The highlight of our stay in the Washington, D.C area was a private tour of the WHITE HOUSE.

Receiving a Christmas card from the White House for four years during the Clinton administration was the ultimate fulfillment of a Filipino student dream. Working for the Federal government was icing on the cake. Had any one of the four private firms not failed me, or had retained me as an employee, I would not have had the courage and incentive to work for Food and Drug Administration. Fireplace inside the White House with me and Macrine in our winter Outfits

The above three events in my life showed that you have to fail in order to succeed. How about you? Can you recall a past experience in your life that inspired you to success? I will be delighted to hear from you.

Are you curious why my wife are in the Christmas list of the Clinton's during the Clinton-Gore Years? Not because we were registered Democrats but I believe because our youngest son was then working in the Office of the President Management and Budget and my youngest daughter was a Presidential Intern in the Vice President Office. Those days are gone and I believe we will never be in the Christmas list of any President or Vice President of the US now or in the future.

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Thursday, April 21, 2016

Solar Lights and Statuaries in My Garden



Last week, I decided to upgrade my old solar garden lights with new models on sale in our local garden shop. It was on sale for $34.99 for two( regular price $44). See photo above. It really adds beauty and accents to my garden statuaries at night. It also creates an enjoyable and an inviting glow to my landscaping. Solar lights can be placed in your front yard, driveway, porch or flowerbeds. I have several garden statuaries and plaques in my garden. Some of the statuaries are as follows:






A short video about garden solar lights is attached as follows:

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

Growing Papaya in a Container in Northern California


The other day, while shopping at our local garden store my eyes bulged with excitement when I saw a Hawaiian papaya( Solo variety) on sale. The price was not cheap. I paid $14.95 for a 2.5 gal ( see photo above). The photo above is the plant after I transferred it to a bigger 5 gal container. I remember very well that the Solo Variety of papaya although small is very sweet.

I hope my papaya will bear fruit this season if not next year. The above incident reminded me of the article I wrote five years ago about the Papaya trees in my garden, that I am reposting today as follows:



I have about six varieties of papaya trees in my garden at Chateau Du Mer in Boac, Marinduque. Of the six varieties, I like the Solo variety imported from Hawaii. The fruits are small but sweet and firm. The other varieties yields bigger fruits but is not as sweet and firm. (see photo above)

Speaking of Papaya Fruits, I am proud to inform readers of this blog, that my doctoral thesis from the University of Illinois, Chicago, USA was on the Papaya Fruit. The title of my thesis was " Chromatographic Analysis of the Volatile Components of the Papaya Fruit". This was published by the Journal of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vol 54, No 6, pages 891-894 dated June, 1965. The following is additional information about the Papaya from Wikipedia.

Originally from southern Mexico, particularly Chiapas and Veracruz, Central America and northern South America, the papaya is now cultivated in most tropical countries, such as Brazil, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Indonesia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Philippines and Jamaica. In cultivation, it grows rapidly, fruiting within 3 years. It is, however, highly frost sensitive.

In the 1990s, the papaya ringspot virus threatened to wipe out Hawaii’s papaya industry completely. Two varieties of papaya, SunUp and Rainbow, that had been genetically modified to be resistant to the virus, were introduced into Hawaii.By 2010, 80% of Hawaiian papaya was genetically modified. Today there is still no conventional or organic method of controlling the ringspot virus. In 2004, non-genetically modified and organic papayas throughout Hawaii had experienced hybridization with the genetically modified varieties.

Papaya Fruit
Uses

Papaya can be used as a food, a cooking aid, and in medicine. The stem and bark are also used in rope production.

Gastronomy

The ripe fruit is usually eaten raw, without skin or seeds. The unripe green fruit of papaya can be eaten cooked, usually in curries, salads and stews. It has a relatively high amount of pectin, which can be used to make jellies.

Green papaya is used in Thai and Filipino cuisine, both raw and cooked.

The black seeds are edible and have a sharp, spicy taste. They are sometimes ground up and used as a substitute for black pepper. In some parts of Asia the young leaves of papaya are steamed and eaten like spinach. In parts of the world papaya leaves are made into tea as a preventative for malaria, though there is no real scientific evidence for the effectiveness of this treatment. The following is Papaya, raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 163 kJ (39 kcal)
Carbohydrates 9.81 g
Sugars 5.90 g
Dietary fibre 1.8 g
Fat 0.14 g
Protein 0.61 g
Vitamin A equiv. 55 μg (6%)
- beta-carotene 276 μg (3%)
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.04 mg (3%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.05 mg (3%)
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.338 mg (2%)
Vitamin B6 0.1 mg (8%)
Vitamin C 61.8 mg (103%)
Calcium 24 mg (2%)
Iron 0.10 mg (1%)
Magnesium 10 mg (3%)
Phosphorus 5 mg (1%)
Potassium 257 mg (5%)
Sodium 3 mg (0%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

Cooking

Green papaya fruit and the tree's latex are both rich in an enzyme called papain, a protease which is useful in tenderizing meat and other proteins. Its ability to break down tough meat fibers was used for thousands of years by indigenous Americans. It is included as a component in powdered meat tenderizers.

Here's a short video of commercial papaya farming from Australia




Medicine

Papaya is marketed in tablet form to remedy digestive problems.

Papain is also applied topically (in countries where it grows) for the treatment of cuts, rashes, stings and burns. Papain ointment is commonly made from fermented papaya flesh, and is applied as a gel-like paste. Harrison Ford was treated for a ruptured disc incurred during filming of Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom by papain injections.

Women in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and other countries have long used green papaya as a folk remedy for contraception and abortion. Enslaved women in the West Indies were noted for consuming papaya to prevent pregnancies and thus preventing their children from being born into slavery.[citation needed] Medical research in animals has confirmed the contraceptive and abortifacient capability of papaya, and also found that papaya seeds have contraceptive effects in adult male langur monkeys, possibly in adult male humans as well.[11] Unripe papaya is especially effective in large amounts or high doses. Ripe papaya is not teratogenic and will not cause miscarriage in small amounts. Phytochemicals in papaya may suppress the effects of progesterone.

Papaya is frequently used as a hair conditioner, but should be used in small amounts. Papaya releases a latex fluid when not quite ripe, which can cause irritation and provoke allergic reaction in some people. The papaya fruit, seeds, latex, and leaves also contains carpaine, an anthelmintic alkaloid (a drug that removes parasitic worms from the body), which can be dangerous in high doses.

It is speculated that unripe papayas may cause miscarriage due to latex content that may cause uterine contractions which may lead to a miscarriage. Papaya seed extracts in large doses have a contraceptive effect on rats and monkeys, but in small doses have no effect on the unborn animals.

Excessive consumption of papaya can cause carotenemia, the yellowing of soles and palms, which is otherwise harmless. However, a very large dose would need to be consumed; papaya contains about 6% of the level of beta carotene found in carrots (the most common cause of carotenemia) per 100g.

Medicinal potential

* The juice has an antiproliferative effect on in vitro liver cancer cells, probably due to its component of lycopene or immune system stimulation.[16]

* Papaya seed could be used as an antibacterial agent for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus or Salmonella typhi, although further research is needed before advocating large-scale therapy.

* Papaya seed extract may be nephroprotective (protect the kidneys) in toxicity-induced kidney failure.

For a change of mood, here's how to make green papaya salad the Thai Way!(different from the Philippine acharra)

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